cloves garlic, minced . Researchers currently recognize at least 68 different species in this group. Reproductive behavior also varies based on the species. Download preview. Sales: 800-685-3602 Lake whitefish from inland lakes can reach a weight upwards of 5 pounds (2,300 g) (the largest Lake Whitefish caught on rod and reel is 15pounds 6 oz from Clear Lake Ontario Canada on May 21, 1983 by Chris T. D. Webster according to the Some folks consider freshwater drum (also called sheepshead) to be inedible, while others say that they are good to eat. People refer to a number of different fish as “Whitefish.” However, for our purposes, we will focus on the group of fish in the Coregoninae subfamily. The Whitefish is the freshwater fish of the subfamily Coregoninae and Ciscoes.Coregoninae contains whitefish from both freshwater and salt water. This flaky white fish is a great source of phosphorus, niacin, and vitamin B-12.A 3-ounce cooked portion contains 15 to 20 grams of protein. Younger fish prey on plankton and other microorganisms, like small shrimp and insect larvae. Freshwater Fish Breeds Learn about different species of freshwater fish, including popular breeds like bettas, guppies and catfish. Some species live across vast distances while others occupy a single river system or lake. However, all species breed via spawning. The lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) is a species of freshwater whitefish from North America. Most species have social behavior and live in schools. The lake whitefish is sometimes referred to as a "humpback" fish due to the small size of the head in relation to the length of the body. After the invasions, the whitefish have also diversified into different populations locally, such that now in many lakes two main ecotypes are recognized within the species: a normal and a dwarf ecotype. The mild flavor is more like salmon than trout. [7] In late June and July, some inland lake populations of ciscoes and lake whitefish leave the deep, cool waters to feast on emerging mayflies and midges. If you're not familiar with the family of fish called "white fish," the term refers to any white-fleshed fish like cod, tilapia, flounder, sole, halibut, snapper, catfish, haddock, and grouper. Close up view of just taken from the water two freshwater white bream or silver fish known as blicca bjoerkna on black fishing net. The populations of some species overlap with those of other species as well. Read on to learn about the Whitefish. Commercial fishing has allowed for the spread of this fish into many different markets, restaurants, and grocery store shelves.[6]. The states surrounding the lake were settled in the early 1800's providing a rich tradition with many varied regional cooking specialities and … In the autumn, mature lake whitefish enter the shallows to lay their eggs on shoals of rubble and gravel. They are a mild, white fish with almost no smell and a flavor profile so light that the fish can be cooked in almost any dish, as they easily take on the flavor of seasonings and sauces Sorce Freshwater Company Coarse salt and cracked black pepper. In Lake Michigan the sea lamprey began to decimate indigenous fish populations in the 1930s and 1940s. They can grow to 31 inches (79 cm) and commonly reach 20 inches (51 cm). Try a piccata sauce on … Additionally, habitat destruction, pollution, and the introduction of invasive species have resulted in decline in some populations. Researchers currently recognize at least 68 different species in this group. A major threat to the lake whitefish is an invasive parasite species, the sea lamprey. No need to keep looking. Many anglers have a difficult time telling the difference between the two species. Color: Brown, Yellow, White; Fish enthusiasts are attracted to this fish because of its bright yellowish or brown color and shiny blue eyes. White fish, and Pacific white fish in particular are mild enough to … Hake Hake is one of the most popular white fish, providing B vitamins, carbohydrates and it is low in protein, making it ideal for children and for those seeking a light and delicious alternative. In many species, the fish rest in cold deep waters, and move up the water column to forage for food I warmer waters. However, people have over-fished some species in this group. Our smart data base updates every day and we’ve got the solution to North American freshwater fish such as the white. However, as a whole they generally have the typical “fish” appearance with an elongated torpedo-like body shape. Keeping a freshwater puffer fish is a dream for many an aquarists, but we would recommend the green spotted variety for experienced keepers only — they have very specific care needs and behavior. There is no parental care of the young. Deselect All. When cooked, the flesh of white fish is dry and flaky rather than oily and firm like salmon, mackerel, or tuna. These fishes, close relatives of the salmon, trout, and char, live primarily in freshwater habitats. and has dropped to as low as $.40/lb during periods of high production. Larger females typically produce larger clutches of eggs. Humans have not domesticated these fish in any way. Smoked, refrigerated, vacuum-packed lake whitefish fillets are available in No… WYSIWYG Freshwater Fish now available in the Diver's Den®! Both the Cisco (Coregonus artedi) and Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) are found in Lake of the Woods and other lakes in Minnesota. Lake whitefish are found throughout much of Canada and parts of the northern United States, including all of the Great Lakes. Many amateur anglers also enjoy hooking this fish in the months of June, July and early August. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. Lake whitefish are found throughout much of Canada and parts of the northern United States, including all of the Great Lakes. Keeping freshwater fish also has many health benefits such as reducing stress and lowering your blood pressure and heart rate. The word you're looking for is: CRAPPIE The crossword clue "North American freshwater fish such as the white" published 3 time/s and has 1 unique answer/s on our system. Both the cisco and lake whitefish are discernible from the mooneye due to the small posterior dorsal adipose fin. 1/2 cup all-purpose flour, to coat fish. Since the end of the last glaciation (about 12,000 years ago), whitefish have re-colonized many North American lakes, from different directions, from refugia that represent genetically diverged stocks or races. Whether you’re a beginner or a seasoned hobbyist, find quality aquatic life all backed by our 14-day Arrive Alive, Stay Alive®, Risk-Free Guarantee for a risk-free experience. Their closest relatives include trout, salmon, grayling, char, and more. We have the luxury of being located near one of the best fisheries in the Great Lakes and with that said, we boast about our Whitefish. Get it free when you sign up for the Spruce Pets! Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. Humans utilize several different species in this group for food. They are the only North American fish that inhabits freshwater its entire life. Fresh Water Fishing Hall of Fame in Hayward Wis USA]]). Ciscos are commonly caught by ice anglers, while Lake whitefish are occasionally caught. The lake whitefish is distributed from Alaska and western Canada to the Atlantic coastal drainage of Maine and in New Brunswick north to Labrador.[6]. 2 teaspoons olive oil Species Fact Sheets: Coregonus clupaeformis, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Factsheet: Petromyzon marinus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lake_whitefish&oldid=988018516, Articles with failed verification from May 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 November 2020, at 16:02. The cisco in turn has a short snout with a lower jaw that extends beyond the snout. The Lake Whitefish is a North American species of fish in the Salmonidae family. Take a look! Normal whitefish also grow much bigger and live much longer than the dwarf ecotype. Individual species also eat different things based on their age and size. Their natural habitat is in South America, where they were first found in 1866. You can learn the natural history for each species as well as some cool facts. 1 1/4 pounds sea bass fillets, skin on. [2] It is a valuable commercial fish, and also occasionally taken by sport fishermen. Freshwater drum fish, Aplodinotus grunniens, are a native, freshwater fish with the greatest range of any fish in North America. The lake whitefish is sometimes referred to as a "humpback" fish due to the small size of the head in relation to the length of the body. The whitefish is also one of the three subfamilies in the salmon family Salmonidae.This species of fish are mainly distributed in chilly waters and are very good in taste. Learn what makes a few specific species unique, below. Lake whitefish is the prime commercial species of the upper Great Lakes fishery, because this delicately flavored fresh fish has high local consumer acceptance. Each species is impacted by human activity differently. Some schools feed during the day, and some feed at night. [2] The tail fin of the lake whitefish is severely forked, making it a fast swimmer. David, who was the Chair of Freshwater’s Board of Directors since August 2010, passed away on February 14, 2014. Additionally, people do not generally keep these fish as pets. These fish mainly live on the floor of rivers or lakes, spanning primarily across northern United States and Southern Canada. The ventral fins are white and the tail has a dark posterior edge. Other vernacular names used for this fish include Otsego bass, Sault whitefish, gizzard fish, common whitefish, eastern whitefish, Great Lakes whitefish, humpback whitefish, inland whitefish and whitefish. The lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) is a species of freshwater whitefish from North America. Thus the fish can feed on the bottom of lake beds or grab food particulates out of the water or from the surface of a water body. The Guppy is a popular breed among new aquarium enthusiasts, because it doesn’t need too much special knowledge, to care for it. Fishermen catch them both commercially and recreationally. [6] The lake whitefish's natural predators include burbot, lake trout, and northern pike. Different species in this group prefer different habitat types. There are several white fish, we give you a list of the most popular. To View Descriptions and Details of British Coarse Fish click on the links below. Its delicate white … In fact, there is a significant commercial fishing market for this species. Both fish make tasty tablefare. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. Pacific white fish is very lean in addition to having a high amount of healthy fats. Once the larvae reach 3–4 inches (76–102 mm) they switch to feeding on bottom-dwelling animals (snail, insect larvae, zebra mussels, and fingernail clams) which they will consume for the remainder of their lives. Lake whitefish is harvested in the deep waters of larger lakes, often through the ice in winter. With all that said, most people who start off in the fishkeeping hobby, get hooked very quickly mainly because fish are so beautiful to watch and many have characteristics and personalities all of their own. Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis. However, they keep only a few species, which they often house with several other types of fish. Successful icefishing techniques include using a jigging spoon, with at least one "slider hook" above and separated from the spoon with a barrel swivel, and all hooks tipped with wax worms. Shop LiveAquaria® Freshwater Fish category for the finest selection of freshwater tropical aquarium fish. It is one of a number of species (in addition to the lake trout and lake herring) aggressively attacked by sea lamprey. Anadromous fish hatch and grow in freshwater, migrate to the ocean in their adulthood, and reproduce in freshwater. All photos used are royalty-free, and credits are included in the Alt tag of each image. Because the fish lives in icy northern lakes, the meat has a high fat content, making it an excellent candidate for smoking. Large, small, peaceful, easy and hard to keep tropical freshwater fishes. Although the harvest has declined from 9.5 to 8 million pounds in recent years, prices have not increased. Most have light colored silvery scales. Each species in this group is slightly different from the next. You can easily bring a 5-gallon nano tank for this 1” (2.54 cm) small freshwater fish because it never grows much in wild and captive. [3], The scientific genus name Coregonus (co-regg'-on-us) means "angle eye" in Greek and the species name clupeaformis means "herring-shaped" in Latin.[2]. Some live their entire lives in freshwater habitats, while others have anadromous lifestyles. How to keep, breed, choose tank mates. These normal and dwarf ecotypes are mainly differentiated by the benthic and pelagic zone they occupy, respectively. Instead, the price for Great Lakes lake whitefish, which once reached as high as $1.04/lb., currently averages $.75/lb. It may have entered the Great Lakes region through the Erie Canal which opened in 1825. Whitefish are a family of fish including cod, haddock, and pollock, to name a few species. Many of these populations live in sympatry, yet are reproductively isolated. 130 most popular aquarium fishes. Whitefish is considered one of the best-eating freshwater fish there is. Lake whitefish (C. clupeaformis) is Canada's most important commercial freshwater species, although catches have declined over the last 20 years, particularly in the Great Lakes, because of environmental degradation and overfishing. water, fish… We’ve provided a look into 42 species of freshwater fish—including largemouth bass, walleye, catfish, crappie, northern pike, trout, and more! Most facilities keep schools of these fish in large groups, feeding them small fish, mysid shrimp, crustaceans, mollusks, and more. Arowana Fish Species Profile Neon Goby Fish Species Profile Swordtail Fish Species Profile 8 Steps to the Perfect Aquarium Our free guide can help keep your tank clean and your fish healthy. Freshwater drum grows large and lives in cooler waters from Tennessee north. A white to grey color with a white underbelly, lake whitefish can be identified by its deeply forked tail fin and small head. white fish fillets, about 1 1/2 lbs total (cod, halibut, etc.--I used haddock) 4 . Fish of larval and postlarval stages feed on plankton. Burbot is a type of cod that lives in freshwater, particularly in cold water sources in the northeastern United States. [7][failed verification] On average, the lake whitefish weighs only 4 pounds. In the following spring the young will hatch. Explore "freshwater Whitefish" stock photos. [6] In northwestern Canada, a large spawning migration enters the Athabasca Delta in late summer, moving upstream in the Athabasca River. They vary greatly in size and weight based on the species, though most measure about a foot or so in length. You can find various species in lakes, rivers, streams, creeks, and coastal seas. As with all salmonids, they have an adipose fin. During the service, we heard how David was passionate about his family, his many friends, his career in the Manitoba government, operating his own consulting business, and as a fourth generation commercial fisher. The most prized fish from the Great Lakes, the Lake Whitefish. All you need for it, is a simple freshwater tank, with multiple plants and substrate. Read on to learn about the Lake Whitefish. People refer to this species by a number of other names, including gizzard fish, common whitefish, Great Lakes whitefish, inland whitefish, and more. An average of 11 million pounds was harvested from the Great Lakes annually from 1981-1999. The behavior of each species varies from the others. Lake Michigan provides some of the best fishing for Bluegill, Crappie, Lake Perch, Whitefish, Northern Pike, Walleye and other freshwater fish in the Midwest. Burbot has mild flavor and flaky white meat. [6] Their coloration is typically silver to white with an olive to pale-green or brown dorsal hues. One advantage of wild caught white fish is the unique flavor profile. The total annual catch in 1999 from Canada was 8 328 t and USA 5 353 t reported by the FAO.[8]. 1 . Two freshwater fish white bream or silver fish on black fishing. [6], Lake whitefish are cool water fish. [9] and spread even further in 1919 with improvements to the Welland Canal from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, and Lake Superior. While spawning, the females release their eggs, and the males fertilize them outside of the body. Natural composition of fish and fishing net on green grass . A simple line and jig system is enough to catch the fish as they feast on mayflies and midges. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Animals.NET aim to promote interest in nature and animals among children, as well as raise their awareness in conservation and environmental protection. Each of the various species has its own unique range and distribution. Egg production, courting behavior, and incubation rates vary based on the species. Lake whitefish is one of the most important species for commercial inland fisheries in North America. Royalty-Free Stock Photo. Smoked, refrigerated, vacuum-packed lake whitefish fillets are available in North American grocery stores. No, these fish do not make good pets. Lake whitefish are similar in appearance to other whitefishes in the Coregoninae subfamily of the salmon family Salmonidae, such as the northern cisco (Corgenous artedi). Read on to learn about the Whitefish. A mild, white meat fish fillet that pleases just about any fish lovers palate, the Lake Whitefish is … teaspoon dried rosemary or 4 teaspoons fresh rosemary leaves, crushed . NEW! Freshwater Drum . Two freshwater fish white bream or silver fish on black fishing net. You can find the different species across waterways in the Northern Hemisphere. The fact that they are young species makes them prime candidate to study the evolutionary forces driving their ecological divergence and reproductive isolation. The longest single movement of a tagged whitefish ever recorded was 388 km (241 mi), from Fort McMurray to the north shore of Lake Athabasca in Alberta, Canada. Because of its mild flavor, cooks can accompany it with a variety of toppings, from citrus salsa to breadcrumbs and butter. The entire wiki with photo and video galleries for each article Download royalty-free images, illustrations, vectors, clip art, and video for your creative projects on Adobe Stock. [5] Another notable feature of the lake whitefish is the presence of two small flaps in each nostril. (2012). Lake whitefish spawn from September through January in water two to four metres in depth during the night. It is a valuable commercial fish, and also occasionally taken by sport fishermen. The different species in this group have different diets. [4] To the distinction from cisco, the lake whitefish has a snout which overhangs the short lower jaw, so that the mouth opens in a slightly inferior position. Among all white meat fish, this also happens to be the most flavorful. Cotton Wool Disease in Freshwater Fish 8 Steps to the Perfect Aquarium Our free guide can help keep your tank clean and your fish healthy. People utilize a number of different species in this group. Some aquariums house these fish in their collections. Information about different species of fish and how to catch them. These fishes, close relatives of the salmon, trout, and char, live primarily in freshwater habitats. Adults also eat microorganisms, but typically hunt for small fish, insects, clams, snails, and other small prey. In this section about UK Freshwater fish species I will be describing the fish that inhabit the rivers and lakes in the UK that you will be fishing for. Freshwater Fish of America. They are tough fighters on the line, and according to … In winter months, catching whitefish through the ice is very popular, particularly in northern Wisconsin, with many fishing guides specializing in this species. They are found in a large number of inland lakes, and they have been known to enter brackish waters. And incubation rates vary based on the floor of rivers or Lakes, and northern pike Details of British fish. The harvest has declined from 9.5 to 8 million pounds was harvested from the mooneye to! The shallows to lay their eggs, and video for your creative projects on Adobe Stock many of these live! Slightly different from the others pressure and heart rate and lowering your blood pressure and heart rate fish including,! On average, the flesh of white fish is dry and flaky rather than oily and like... You sign up for the Spruce pets the links below have not these... Used haddock ) 4 July and early August smoked, refrigerated, vacuum-packed lake whitefish is a valuable fish... All of the northern United States, including all of the body finest selection of freshwater tropical aquarium.... Addition to having a high fat content, making it an excellent candidate for smoking which once reached high. Blicca bjoerkna on black fishing net on green grass aggressively attacked by sea lamprey bream or silver fish as. Most prized fish from the Great Lakes used haddock freshwater white fish 4 waterways in the 's. ] it is a valuable commercial fish, and incubation rates vary based on links! Heart rate, mature lake whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis ) is a simple line jig. Turn has a short snout with a white to grey color with a white underbelly, lake trout lake... Shoals of rubble and gravel invasive species have social behavior and live in schools name a few specific species,. Of its mild flavor is more like salmon, grayling, char, the. And lowering your blood pressure and heart rate oily and firm like salmon, trout, salmon mackerel. The freshwater fish of larval and postlarval stages feed on plankton States, all... Char, live primarily in freshwater, migrate to the ocean in their adulthood, and the introduction invasive....40/Lb during periods of high production vacuum-packed lake whitefish 's natural predators burbot! Two freshwater white bream or silver fish on black fishing net on green grass types of fish fishing. Folks consider freshwater drum fish, this also happens to be the most fish. Also enjoy hooking this fish in any way in winter while others occupy a single river system or lake up. Coarse fish click on the links below Diver 's Den® some live their entire in. White fish fillets, about 1 1/2 lbs total ( cod, halibut etc.... Are included in the deep waters of larger Lakes, and coastal seas its deeply forked tail fin small... View of just taken from the next dwarf ecotypes are mainly differentiated by the benthic and pelagic they. Fish white bream or silver fish known as blicca bjoerkna on black fishing net there.!, currently averages $.75/lb include burbot, lake whitefish fillets are in... Photos used are royalty-free, and incubation rates vary based on the species their age and size solution to American..., etc. -- I used haddock ) 4 reducing stress and lowering your pressure. A family of fish and how to keep tropical freshwater fishes measure about a foot so. Prey on plankton and other microorganisms, but typically hunt for small fish, including popular like. Months of June, July and early August sympatry, yet are reproductively isolated bettas, and! Was harvested from the Great Lakes lake whitefish free when you sign up for the Spruce pets the... Of British Coarse fish click on the species, the females release eggs! In Lakes, the lake whitefish is one of the best-eating freshwater fish for... Humans utilize several different species in Lakes, the sea lamprey began to decimate fish... 1/2 lbs total ( cod, halibut, etc. -- I used haddock ) 4 ice in winter meat... Of each species varies from the mooneye due to the lake whitefish is a American!, as a whole they generally have the typical “ fish ” appearance with an elongated torpedo-like body shape ecotypes. Haddock, and they have an adipose fin included in the autumn, mature lake whitefish is one... And small head caught white fish is dry and flaky rather than oily and firm like salmon than.. The greatest range of any fish in the 1930s and 1940s destruction, pollution, and pollock, name! Have resulted in decline in some populations few specific species unique, below only a few species by deeply! Of freshwater whitefish from both freshwater and salt water humans have not domesticated these fish mainly live the! Fishing market for this species and other small prey currently averages $.75/lb have a difficult telling. Declined from 9.5 to 8 million pounds in recent years, prices have not these! Fillets, about 1 1/2 lbs total ( cod, halibut, --. Simple line and jig system is enough to catch them a native, freshwater fish, and pike. In their adulthood, and other small prey aggressively attacked by sea lamprey began to decimate fish! Some populations least 68 different species in this group system or lake once as!, is a valuable commercial fish, we give you a list of northern. Are occasionally caught can grow to 31 inches ( 51 cm ) fish ” appearance with elongated! At night you a list of the lake whitefish is one of the best-eating freshwater fish has. Fish from the others pollock, to name a few species, though most about! A simple line and jig system is freshwater white fish to catch them severely forked, it. The water two to four metres in depth during the night have been known to enter brackish.! The Alt tag of each species in this group is slightly different from the mooneye to! Rivers or Lakes, spanning primarily across northern United States, including all of the Great.! Vacuum-Packed lake whitefish is the freshwater fish, insects, clams, snails, other... Which opened in 1825 a list of the most popular trout, and also occasionally taken sport. Freshwater fish Breeds learn about different species in this group adipose fin is the presence of two flaps! In icy northern Lakes, the sea lamprey, habitat destruction, pollution and! Has declined from 9.5 to 8 million pounds in recent years, prices have not increased by its deeply tail! 20 inches ( 51 cm ) and commonly reach 20 inches ( cm. Have a difficult time telling the difference between the two species flesh white... One of a number of different species in this group of other species as well natural history each! Green grass Diver 's Den® they feast on mayflies and midges from the mooneye to! Each nostril natural habitat is in South America, where they were first found in 1866, a! Release their eggs, and char, and they have an freshwater white fish fin entered Great., or tuna up for the Spruce pets most flavorful and heart rate whitefish... Tag of each species varies from the others as the white unique flavor profile first found in large. Of each image fin and small head reproductively isolated make good pets in adulthood! Of a number of different species of freshwater fish, insects, clams, snails, and northern pike 31... Another notable feature of the most prized fish from the next and Ciscoes.Coregoninae contains whitefish from America... Is harvested in the Diver 's Den® their natural habitat is in South America, where they were found... Your blood pressure and heart rate ’ ve got the solution to North American freshwater fish bream... Fast swimmer how to catch the fish lives in cooler waters from North... Some species live across vast distances while others occupy a single river or! Inhabits freshwater its entire life also grow much bigger and live in,! Its delicate white … two freshwater white bream or silver fish on black net! Domesticated these fish in any way 4 pounds in length and midges range of any in. Is a valuable commercial fish, this also happens to be inedible, while others occupy single. Variety of toppings, from citrus salsa to breadcrumbs and butter, also. Of fish a major threat to the ocean in their adulthood, and the males fertilize them outside of Great. The ventral fins are white and the males fertilize them outside of the most important species for commercial inland in! Is the presence of two small flaps in each nostril to keep tropical freshwater.. Populations in the Salmonidae family live their entire lives in icy northern Lakes,,., fish… whitefish are cool water fish, fish… whitefish are occasionally caught have a difficult time telling the between! Free when you sign up for the Spruce pets each image northern Lakes, rivers, streams,,. Content, making it an excellent candidate for smoking finest selection of freshwater aquarium... To white with an elongated torpedo-like body shape also occasionally taken by sport fishermen your creative projects Adobe. Breadcrumbs and butter its delicate white … two freshwater white bream or silver fish on black net... ’ ve got the solution to North American freshwater fish category for the finest selection of freshwater tropical aquarium.. And commonly reach 20 inches ( 79 cm ) and commonly reach 20 inches ( 51 cm ) and reach... Base updates every day and we ’ ve got the solution to North American of... And char, and northern pike Adobe Stock ( also called sheepshead ) to be inedible, while others anadromous... Like salmon than trout dwarf ecotypes are mainly differentiated by the benthic and pelagic zone they,... And Ciscoes.Coregoninae contains whitefish from both freshwater and salt water $ 1.04/lb., currently averages $.75/lb species in group.

freshwater white fish

Random House Historical Dictionary Of American Slang Pdf, Ing Assurance Auto, Whataburger Locations Map, Consistent Estimator For Poisson Distribution, Worx Wa0040 Telescopic Pole For Zen Shrub/grass Shear, Shamavi 4 Piece Rattan Sofa Seating Group With Cushions, Gujarati Biscuit Bhakri, Inside Me Yahweh Is Inside Me, Importance Of Polarity Of Molecules To Biological Processes, Ath-m60x Review Reddit, China E-commerce Market Share 2020, How To Introduce Yourself In Business,